523RR, Fawcett's Cave, Devils River State Natural Area, TX
 

Equipment

Laurence uses Linhof Technika and Toho field cameras for his 4x5 work.  His lenses are made by Rodenstock, Schneider, and Nikon and have focal lengths of 90mm, 150mm, 200mm, 210mm, 240mm, 300mm, 360mm, and 500mm.  For color work, his favorite transparency films are Kodak E100VS and Fuji Velvia.  For black and white, he usually uses Kodak Tri-X.  He uses both standard film holders and Quick Load and Ready Load holders.  Although most of his photos do not require filters, on occasion he will use a polarizer to cut glare from water and foliage or to carefully darken a bleached sky.  For scenes where the light is too blue, such as in shadows, he will use an 81B warming filter.  To achieve good depth of field with a 4x5 camera, apertures of f32 or f45 are common, necessitating long exposures.  Exposures typically range from 1/8 second to a minute.
For 35mm images, Laurence uses the older Olympus OM4T system.  Its compact size is a major asset when added to the large amount of 4x5 equipment already being carried on trips.  Lenses used range from 21mm to 500mm.  Favorite films are the same as those used with his 4x5.

For occasional indoor work, Laurence uses a Norman studio lighting system with multiple flash heads.  For his cave photography, he uses portable flashes that often require multiple pops to fully light the subject while the shutter is held open on a B or T setting.  Equipment is carried on trips with a mix of Pelican cases, Tundra cases, and various backpacks.

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